Borax and fine grain

Discussion in 'Darkroom Developing and Printing' started by Jorge Omar, Oct 8, 2003.

  1. Jorge Omar

    Jorge Omar Guest

    This was posted to the group in 1996, by Michael Gudzinowicz:

    "Borax was used in fine grain developers not only to act as a mild
    "activator", but also as an emulsion hardener to prevent swelling.
    Boric acid is used in some fixers for the same reason - as a hardener"

    Is there an general agreement with the above phrase (emulsion hardener) or
    it's only a matter of right pH/buffer?


    Jorge Omar, Oct 8, 2003
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  2. The stronger the alkali, the more the emulsion swells. Less alkai,
    less swelling. Borax is a mild alkali, so it swells the emulsion less.
    Michael Scarpitti, Oct 8, 2003
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