Kodak on Variable Film Development: NO!

Discussion in 'Kodak' started by Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004.

  1. I was finally able to locate a copy of 'Negative Making' by Kodak,
    which contains the statements that I have often paraphrased abiut
    avoiding variable film development, the cornerstone of the zoan
    sistum.

    It is to be found on page 9:

    "As the portrait photographers have their adage, so also do the
    commercial photographers who say, "Expose for the shadows and develop
    for the highlights." Is this sound advice? First, let us examine this
    statement more closely. Admittedly, adequate exposure is desirable to
    record the important shadow tones. But to "develop for the highlights"
    implies that the time of development, or in other words, the gamma,
    should be varied in accordance with the brightness range of the scene.
    The idea is, of course, to prevent overdevelopment of highlights, so
    the scale of tones can be kept within that which photographic paper
    can render. Thus, should a negative of a short scale subject, such as
    an average building exterior taken on an overcast day, be developed to
    a higher gamma than a negative of the same scene taken in brilliant
    sunlight? The answer is generally no; both negatives should be
    developed alike. This is probably contrary to the practice which some
    professional photographers advocate. The reasoning for this answer
    follows: Although photographers speak of "important highlights" and
    "important shadows," for the most part it is actually the middle tones
    which are most important of all. Middle tones are, of course, the
    range of grays between highlights and shadows. Stated differently,
    middle tones of a negative or print are those densities which are not
    associated with toe or shoulder areas of the characteristic curve.

    It has been found through a series of comprehensive tests that for the
    great majority of scenes the middle tones should be reproduced at a
    gradient of 1.0 on a tone reproduction curve. This curve is a plot of
    densities in the print versus the logarithms of the luminances or
    "brightnesses" of corresponding areas in the scene. A gradient of 1.0
    means that if there is a 10 percent difference between two tones in
    the scene, then these same tones should be reproduced with a 10
    percent difference in the print. Generally speaking, the middle tones
    should be reproduced with a gradient of 1.0, even if this can be done
    only at a sacrifice of gradient in the highlights and shadows."


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Below is the whole text of pages 2-11:

    Negative Quality
    It is axiomatic that if optimum print quality is to be obtained, the
    negative must also be of optimum quality. Unfortunately, there is no
    simple yet completely comprehensive answer to the question of what is
    a good negative, which leads back again to the generalization that a
    good negative is one which makes a good print.

    Regardless of the type of photography involved, there is a definite
    production advantage in producing negatives of consistent quality.
    Ideally, the photographer's goal should be to make all his negatives
    so that they will give a consistently high quality when printed on the
    same grade of paper. To do this, it is important to maintain fairly
    accurate control over film processing conditions. The temperature of
    the developer, the method and frequency of agitation, and the time of
    development should be held as constant as possible and close to
    recommendations, if consistently good, reproducible results are to be
    obtained. Even with Kodak Developer DK-50 diluted l to 1 as an aid in
    stabilizing development times, a difference of only one minute of
    extra development means an increase of about 20 percent in gamma, or
    the amount of contrast increase equivalent to one full paper grade.

    Negatives made by professional photographers can be divided into two
    general classifications, portrait and commercial, for a study of
    their desired characteristics.

    THE PORTRAIT NEGATIVE
    What is a portrait negative? Certainly not every picture in which a
    person appears. For the purpose of this discussion, a portrait is,
    generally, a formal, indoor picture taken with medium-to low-key
    lighting and covers the range of head-and-shoulders close-ups to
    three-quarter views. The desired printing characteristics of negatives
    of high-key portraits, group pictures, outdoor portraits, and pictures
    of teen-agers or younger people are more closely akin to those of
    commercial negatives.

    Consider for a moment the desired characteristics of a medium low-key
    portrait. Customers, particularly men, find this style of lighting
    quite pleasing or, at any rate, "less revealing," than a moderately
    high-key lighting. From the photographer's standpoint, therefore, the
    majority of the subject tones will be shadow areas. The center of
    attention should be, of course, the subject's face with its carefully
    placed highlight emphasis. The portrait photographer is interested in
    the subject's face to the extent that he is willing to accept
    intentional distortion of the shadows if this will add by comparison
    to the facial emphasis. Photographically the problem resolves itself
    to rendering the shadows with low contrast, and the facial highlights
    with sufficient contrast. How should this be accomplished?

    For many years a popular adage among portrait photographers has been,
    "You can read a newspaper through a good negative." And, as a general
    guide to portrait-negative quality, this adage seems to be true. It is
    a "rule of thumb" which helps the portrait photographer to achieve
    negatives with proper printing characteristics and to avoid production
    annoyances, such as dense negatives which print with excessively long
    enlarging times. A negative "through which a newspaper can be read"
    should be exposed so that it has a fairly low average density, and
    should be developed so that facial tones are slightly transparent with
    the exception of the most dense diffuse highlights on the forehead.
    These highlights should be just dense enough so that printing cannot
    be seen through them. This assumes average subject reflectances and a
    normal portrait lighting ratio of about 3 to l.

    Aside from the subject arrangement, the lighting, and the type of film
    used, the printing characteristics of the negative are controlled both
    by the amount of exposure and degree of development. Although exposure
    and development are interrelated in their effect on density, it is
    simpler to consider their actions separately. Primarily, the exposure
    affects the density obtainable in both the shadows and highlights,
    while the degree of development, as indicated by gamma, affects the
    density of the highlights more than that of the shadows.

    Exposure.
    It has been found that a portrait negative yields best-quality prints
    if the exposure locates the shadow point on the toe of the
    characteristic curve not lower than the ASA gradient speed point.
    Briefly, the shadow point in the negative represents the darkest area
    of the subject in which detail is desired in the print. The speed
    point described in the Standard is the point on the characteristic
    curve where the gradient is 0.3 of the average gradient over 1.5 log
    exposure range. 1f further clarification of these sensitometric
    concepts is desired, pages 4, 5, and 6 of the Data Book "Kodak Films"
    are recommended for supplementary reading.

    Recommended exposure meter techniques using either reflected-light or
    incident-light readings have an exposure safety factor of about 2 ½
    times. This means that a normal meter reading will result in an
    exposure which will place the shadow point about one lens stop above
    the ASA gradient speed point. In other words, if the meter is used
    correctly, there is an exposure latitude from the indicated reading to
    one stop less than this where the shadow point of an excellent
    portrait negative should be located. Underexposure of more than one
    stop will place the shadow point down too far on the characteristic
    curve, and the darkest areas of the subject will be represented in the
    negative by insufficient density differences. This means that a shadow
    detail will not be discernible in the print.

    It has also been found that if a portrait negative with optimum
    printing quality is desired, it is important with most portrait films
    not to expose the film enough to place the shadow point appreciably
    above the ASA gradient speed point. With some films, however, such as
    Kodak Super-XX, this can be a fairly large factor; in some cases two
    or four times seems satisfactory. The important consideration is that
    the highlight densities at the other end of the density scale should
    not be recorded by the shoulder portion of the characteristic curve.
    The curve gradient here is decreasing as the density increases, which
    means that the facial highlights, if recorded, will be rendered with
    insufficient tonal separation.

    Here, then, is how and why a portrait negative should be exposed: The
    darkest shadow areas should be well down on the toe of the
    characteristic curve, the middle tones should be on the central
    portion of the toe, while the highest diffuse facial highlights should
    be on the straight-line portion of the curve. Ideally, these
    highlights should have density values of about 0.8 to 1.0. For most
    portrait films, this value should not be above 1.2. A negative which
    has been exposed in this manner will result in a print which, most
    observers agree, is of better quality than the best obtainable print
    made from negatives with appreciably less or more exposure. This ideal
    negative has, accordingly, highlights which have appreciably more
    brilliant tonal separation than the shadows. This evidently helps to
    concentrate observer attention on the most important area of the
    portrait, the face, while subordinating the shadows with a lower
    printing contrast.

    In other words, in portraiture, a more pleasing picture may be
    obtained if toe densities represent the shadows in spite of the fact
    that it may be a less literal reproduction of the subject. Thus, from
    a pictorial standpoint, retention of shadow detail may be unimportant.

    There is another factor which influences the tolerance of the film's
    exposure latitude, and that is the type of film which is used.
    Remember that it is desirable to keep the facial highlights from being
    recorded by the shoulder portion of the characteristic curve. It
    happens that some films normally "shoulder" sooner than others as the
    higher densities are approached. It follows, therefore, that the
    longer the straight-line portion of the curve, the more "portrait"
    latitude a particular film has. Of course, too long a negative scale
    cannot be compressed within the ability of a photographic paper to
    reproduce its entire spread. For films customarily used in
    portraiture, and which have a shoulder starting at a density of about
    1.5, the negative should be on the "thin side." However, excellent
    prints can be made even from fairly dense negatives on Kodak Super-XX
    Film which has an unusually long "straight-line curve."

    There is, of course, an upper limit of useful exposure which is
    governed by increased graininess, loss of definition, and the
    practical difficulty of printing very dense negatives long before the
    upper limit of the negative exposure scale is reached.

    It should not be inferred that a film with a long straight-line curve
    is better for portraiture than one which shoulders off at a lower
    density. Portrait films with a long sweeping toe have both a very
    desirable toe shape and sufficient straight line to record the
    highlights brilliantly. It's just that a longer straight-line curve
    permits a greater "portrait-subject" exposure latitude.

    Development.
    The photographer's style of lighting in terms of lighting ratios, his
    enlarging equipment, and the Kodak Opal Paper on which he makes his
    prints are relatively fixed features among the variables controlling
    print contrast. The simplest method of controlling contrast is,
    accordingly, by adjusting the degree of negative development. Because
    individual working conditions and techniques vary widely, it means,
    practically, that every photographer should develop his negatives to a
    gamma which best suits his particular conditions. Thus, any gamma
    which results subsequently in best-quality prints is the correct gamma
    to use. Development recommendations are therefore to be regarded as a
    basis for trial from which a departure may be needed. The Kodak
    Developing Dataguide will be found helpful in working out a uniform
    development procedure best suited to a photographer's particular
    needs. As an example, take a portrait photographer using a certain
    lighting contrast, type of enlarger, etc. He might find that the most
    appropriate film developing time corresponds to the "Lower Contrast"
    arrow on the Dataguide. If he changes film or developer, or the
    developer temperature changes, he can obtain negatives of the same
    printing quality by developing for the time which again appears at the
    "Lower Contrast" arrow. In any case, having once found the degree of
    development that gives excellent prints on the desired paper, he
    should stick to it. This degree of development may come above or below
    the recommended one, but it is the right one for the photographer's
    conditions.

    THE COMMERCIAL NEGATIVE
    Commercial photography encompasses almost all subjects not included
    under the portrait category previously discussed. Commercial negatives
    would be typified by normal negatives of product illustrations for
    advertising, display, or catalogue purposes, press shots, and many
    types of industrial photography.

    Whereas in portraiture the photographer is primarily concerned with
    the reproduction of facial tones, in commercial photography he is
    interested equally in both highlights and shadows. In other words, the
    commercial photographer wants to reproduce all important portions of
    his subject with a minimum of tonal value distortion. In general, this
    means a slightly more dense negative in order to avoid the tonal
    distortion of shadows occurring in the toe portion of the
    characteristic curve. Many commercial photographers feel that these
    conditions are fulfilled if the average commercial negative receives
    about one stop more than the average portrait negative. Thus, the
    recommended technique for making a meter reading by either reflected
    light or incident light will produce negatives of the desired exposure
    level.

    It has been customary for commercial negatives to be developed
    somewhat more than portrait negatives. However, there is no
    photographic reason why an average commercial negative should be
    developed to a higher gamma than a portrait negative.

    As the portrait photographers have their adage, so also do the
    commercial photographers who say, "Expose for the shadows and develop
    for the highlights." Is this sound advice? First, let us examine this
    statement more closely. Admittedly, adequate exposure is desirable to
    record the important shadow tones. But to "develop for the highlights"
    implies that the time of development, or in other words, the gamma,
    should be varied in accordance with the brightness range of the scene.
    The idea is, of course, to prevent overdevelopment of highlights, so
    the scale of tones can be kept within that which photographic paper
    can render. Thus, should a negative of a short scale subject, such as
    an average building exterior taken on an overcast day, be developed to
    a higher gamma than a negative of the same scene taken in brilliant
    sunlight? The answer is generally no; both negatives should be
    developed alike. This is probably contrary to the practice which some
    professional photographers advocate. The reasoning for this answer
    follows: Although photographers speak of "important highlights" and
    "important shadows," for the most part it is actually the middle tones
    which are most important of all. Middle tones are, of course, the
    range of grays between highlights and shadows. Stated differently,
    middle tones of a negative or print are those densities which are not
    associated with toe or shoulder areas of the characteristic curve.

    It has been found through a series of comprehensive tests that for the
    great majority of scenes the middle tones should be reproduced at a
    gradient of 1.0 on a tone reproduction curve. This curve is a plot of
    densities in the print versus the logarithms of the luminances or
    "brightnesses" of corresponding areas in the scene. A gradient of 1.0
    means that if there is a 10 percent difference between two tones in
    the scene, then these same tones should be reproduced with a 10
    percent difference in the print. Generally speaking, the middle tones
    should be reproduced with a gradient of 1.0, even if this can be done
    only at a sacrifice of gradient in the highlights and shadows.
    In other words, the majority of people want the middle tones of the
    print to reproduce most original subjects as closely as possible,
    regardless of the lighting conditions that prevailed when the pictures
    were taken. To do this, all negatives should be developed to the same
    contrast or gamma for the same printing conditions and paper grade.

    There are exceptions, of course. The "majority" of outdoor subjects in
    the tests mentioned previously included about 85 percent of
    picture-taking situations, such as portraits, landscapes, and
    architectural pictures taken in sunlight, in shade, and on overcast
    days. The remaining 15 percent of the scenes had, for the most part,
    large and very deep shadow areas which comprised an important part of
    the subject. It was these latter scenes which the majority of
    observers thought were best printed on a paper one grade softer than
    normal. Thus, even for subjects with a long scale of brightnesses, it
    was found satisfactory to develop the negative as though for a normal
    scene and to let the range of paper grades compensate for the unusual
    nature of the subject. In other words, the varying lighting conditions
    may demand the use of a paper grade other than No.2 for best results.

    However, unusual subjects in which heavy shadows may either be present
    or actually predominate the scene are usually treated differently by
    professional photographers than they are by amateur photographers. The
    professional uses fill-in flash illumination, whereas the amateur does
    them without the benefit of supplementary illumination. The flash
    converts an "unusual" subject into a "normal" subject, and as such
    requires a normal negative development and will print on a normal
    grade of paper.

    The degree of negative development for some subjects naturally depends
    on the photographer's "artistic intent." For example, suppose he were
    to photograph a sailboat at anchor during foggy weather. If it is
    thought that the fog lends a desirable pictorial effect to the scene,
    then it can be reproduced as the eye saw it with a normal negative
    development and a print on No.2 grade paper. If, on the other hand, a
    clear record picture of the boat was the photographer's object, and
    the exposure could be made only under a fog condition, then the
    negative should receive more than normal development to compensate for
    the contrast-reducing action of the fog particles. In this case,
    overdevelopment of the negative is desirable only if a print from a
    normally developed negative on No.4 paper grade would contain
    insufficient contrast. Accordingly, in view of the desirability of
    reproducing most scenes with a gradient of 1.0, and because of the
    wide control over contrast possible with various paper grades, it is
    highly advisable for the professional photographer to develop the
    great majority of his negatives to the same gamma.

    A sensible approach to planning a standard photographic technique,
    including the degree of negative development, is to strive for a
    negative that will print best on a normal grade of paper. Although
    there is no necessity to confine oneself to anyone gamma if several
    paper grades are available, it is only logical to aim for No.2 paper.
    If this is done successfully, the printing problem is simplified by
    using one grade of paper for most negatives. At the same time, the
    photographer is protected on both sides of normal by papers with
    greater or less contrast capacity, should an underdeveloped or
    overdeveloped negative accidentally result.

    Kodak processing recommendations for film are generally based on the
    use of diffusion-type enlargers, or on contact printing which results
    in prints of approximately the same contrast, everything else being
    equal. Obviously, these same processing recommendations should be
    modified by a reduction of 15 to 20 percent in gamma to suit
    condenser-type enlargers if prints of the same contrast are to be
    obtained.

    Individual preferences are shown in a survey made of several
    individual newspapers and the principal news photo services. The
    results showed that films were developed to gammas ranging from 0.62
    to 1.18, with an average of 0.85; that Kodak Developer DK-60a was the
    most popular of the developers, although a number of others were used;
    and that developing times ranged all the way from 4 ½ to 8 minutes.
    The photographers who preferred the lower range of gammas used
    condenser enlargers. The ones who developed films in the intermediate
    range used tungsten-source, diffusion enlargers, and those using the
    highest gammas employed mercury-vapor enlargers. In a similar manner,
    commercial and, to a lesser extent, portrait photographers also modify
    the basic development recommendations according to individual
    conditions.
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004
    #1
    1. Advertisements

  2. Michael Scarpitti

    Frank Pittel Guest

    The followin pararaph is my favorite. I do have to admit that rather then aiming for
    No. 2 grade paper I target No. 3 grade paper. I have in fact tuned my development
    process so that I use a No. 3 grade paper 80+% of the time.

    Sounds like Kodak and us zonies are in complete agreement here.

    : A sensible approach to planning a standard photographic technique,
    : including the degree of negative development, is to strive for a
    : negative that will print best on a normal grade of paper. Although
    : there is no necessity to confine oneself to anyone gamma if several
    : paper grades are available, it is only logical to aim for No.2 paper.
    : If this is done successfully, the printing problem is simplified by
    : using one grade of paper for most negatives. At the same time, the
    : photographer is protected on both sides of normal by papers with
    : greater or less contrast capacity, should an underdeveloped or
    : overdeveloped negative accidentally result.


    --




    Keep working millions on welfare depend on you
     
    Frank Pittel, Aug 1, 2004
    #2
    1. Advertisements

  3. If you think that, you have obviously not understood a single point the author made.


    "Thus, should a negative of a short scale subject, such as
    an average building exterior taken on an overcast day, be developed to
    a higher gamma than a negative of the same scene taken in brilliant
    sunlight? The answer is generally no; both negatives should be
    developed alike. This is probably contrary to the practice which some
    professional photographers advocate. The reasoning for this answer
    follows: Although photographers speak of "important highlights" and
    "important shadows," for the most part it is actually the middle tones
    which are most important of all. Middle tones are, of course, the
    range of grays between highlights and shadows. Stated differently,
    middle tones of a negative or print are those densities which are not
    associated with toe or shoulder areas of the characteristic curve."


    This is in DIRECT CONTRADICTION to zoan sistum practice, dumbass.

    "...both negatives should be developed alike."
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004
    #3
  4. Michael Scarpitti

    Jim Phelps Guest

    Frank,

    Beating a dead horse is more rewarding than a discussion on the Zone
    System with this individual. So is pounding sand, pissing up a rope, etc.
    etc. etc...

    I need to update my filters. I thought I ignored everything MS wrote...

    Ignorance is bliss, and ignore MS is sooooo blissful...

    Jim
     
    Jim Phelps, Aug 1, 2004
    #4
  5. Michael Scarpitti

    Frank Pittel Guest

    Interestingly enough I can't seem to find this book for sale. The only refernece
    I can find is to a long out of print book from 1952. It's clear from reading new
    publications from Kodak that they have come to see the light.


    : I was finally able to locate a copy of 'Negative Making' by Kodak,
    : which contains the statements that I have often paraphrased abiut
    : avoiding variable film development, the cornerstone of the zoan
    : sistum.

    : It is to be found on page 9:

    : "As the portrait photographers have their adage, so also do the
    : commercial photographers who say, "Expose for the shadows and develop
    : for the highlights." Is this sound advice? First, let us examine this
    : statement more closely. Admittedly, adequate exposure is desirable to
    : record the important shadow tones. But to "develop for the highlights"
    : implies that the time of development, or in other words, the gamma,
    : should be varied in accordance with the brightness range of the scene.
    : The idea is, of course, to prevent overdevelopment of highlights, so
    : the scale of tones can be kept within that which photographic paper
    : can render. Thus, should a negative of a short scale subject, such as
    : an average building exterior taken on an overcast day, be developed to
    : a higher gamma than a negative of the same scene taken in brilliant
    : sunlight? The answer is generally no; both negatives should be
    : developed alike. This is probably contrary to the practice which some
    : professional photographers advocate. The reasoning for this answer
    : follows: Although photographers speak of "important highlights" and
    : "important shadows," for the most part it is actually the middle tones
    : which are most important of all. Middle tones are, of course, the
    : range of grays between highlights and shadows. Stated differently,
    : middle tones of a negative or print are those densities which are not
    : associated with toe or shoulder areas of the characteristic curve.
    :
    : It has been found through a series of comprehensive tests that for the
    : great majority of scenes the middle tones should be reproduced at a
    : gradient of 1.0 on a tone reproduction curve. This curve is a plot of
    : densities in the print versus the logarithms of the luminances or
    : "brightnesses" of corresponding areas in the scene. A gradient of 1.0
    : means that if there is a 10 percent difference between two tones in
    : the scene, then these same tones should be reproduced with a 10
    : percent difference in the print. Generally speaking, the middle tones
    : should be reproduced with a gradient of 1.0, even if this can be done
    : only at a sacrifice of gradient in the highlights and shadows."


    : -----------------------------------------------------------------------

    : Below is the whole text of pages 2-11:

    : Negative Quality
    : It is axiomatic that if optimum print quality is to be obtained, the
    : negative must also be of optimum quality. Unfortunately, there is no
    : simple yet completely comprehensive answer to the question of what is
    : a good negative, which leads back again to the generalization that a
    : good negative is one which makes a good print.

    : Regardless of the type of photography involved, there is a definite
    : production advantage in producing negatives of consistent quality.
    : Ideally, the photographer's goal should be to make all his negatives
    : so that they will give a consistently high quality when printed on the
    : same grade of paper. To do this, it is important to maintain fairly
    : accurate control over film processing conditions. The temperature of
    : the developer, the method and frequency of agitation, and the time of
    : development should be held as constant as possible and close to
    : recommendations, if consistently good, reproducible results are to be
    : obtained. Even with Kodak Developer DK-50 diluted l to 1 as an aid in
    : stabilizing development times, a difference of only one minute of
    : extra development means an increase of about 20 percent in gamma, or
    : the amount of contrast increase equivalent to one full paper grade.

    : Negatives made by professional photographers can be divided into two
    : general classifications, portrait and commercial, for a study of
    : their desired characteristics.

    : THE PORTRAIT NEGATIVE
    : What is a portrait negative? Certainly not every picture in which a
    : person appears. For the purpose of this discussion, a portrait is,
    : generally, a formal, indoor picture taken with medium-to low-key
    : lighting and covers the range of head-and-shoulders close-ups to
    : three-quarter views. The desired printing characteristics of negatives
    : of high-key portraits, group pictures, outdoor portraits, and pictures
    : of teen-agers or younger people are more closely akin to those of
    : commercial negatives.
    :
    : Consider for a moment the desired characteristics of a medium low-key
    : portrait. Customers, particularly men, find this style of lighting
    : quite pleasing or, at any rate, "less revealing," than a moderately
    : high-key lighting. From the photographer's standpoint, therefore, the
    : majority of the subject tones will be shadow areas. The center of
    : attention should be, of course, the subject's face with its carefully
    : placed highlight emphasis. The portrait photographer is interested in
    : the subject's face to the extent that he is willing to accept
    : intentional distortion of the shadows if this will add by comparison
    : to the facial emphasis. Photographically the problem resolves itself
    : to rendering the shadows with low contrast, and the facial highlights
    : with sufficient contrast. How should this be accomplished?

    : For many years a popular adage among portrait photographers has been,
    : "You can read a newspaper through a good negative." And, as a general
    : guide to portrait-negative quality, this adage seems to be true. It is
    : a "rule of thumb" which helps the portrait photographer to achieve
    : negatives with proper printing characteristics and to avoid production
    : annoyances, such as dense negatives which print with excessively long
    : enlarging times. A negative "through which a newspaper can be read"
    : should be exposed so that it has a fairly low average density, and
    : should be developed so that facial tones are slightly transparent with
    : the exception of the most dense diffuse highlights on the forehead.
    : These highlights should be just dense enough so that printing cannot
    : be seen through them. This assumes average subject reflectances and a
    : normal portrait lighting ratio of about 3 to l.
    :
    : Aside from the subject arrangement, the lighting, and the type of film
    : used, the printing characteristics of the negative are controlled both
    : by the amount of exposure and degree of development. Although exposure
    : and development are interrelated in their effect on density, it is
    : simpler to consider their actions separately. Primarily, the exposure
    : affects the density obtainable in both the shadows and highlights,
    : while the degree of development, as indicated by gamma, affects the
    : density of the highlights more than that of the shadows.

    : Exposure.
    : It has been found that a portrait negative yields best-quality prints
    : if the exposure locates the shadow point on the toe of the
    : characteristic curve not lower than the ASA gradient speed point.
    : Briefly, the shadow point in the negative represents the darkest area
    : of the subject in which detail is desired in the print. The speed
    : point described in the Standard is the point on the characteristic
    : curve where the gradient is 0.3 of the average gradient over 1.5 log
    : exposure range. 1f further clarification of these sensitometric
    : concepts is desired, pages 4, 5, and 6 of the Data Book "Kodak Films"
    : are recommended for supplementary reading.

    : Recommended exposure meter techniques using either reflected-light or
    : incident-light readings have an exposure safety factor of about 2 ?
    : times. This means that a normal meter reading will result in an
    : exposure which will place the shadow point about one lens stop above
    : the ASA gradient speed point. In other words, if the meter is used
    : correctly, there is an exposure latitude from the indicated reading to
    : one stop less than this where the shadow point of an excellent
    : portrait negative should be located. Underexposure of more than one
    : stop will place the shadow point down too far on the characteristic
    : curve, and the darkest areas of the subject will be represented in the
    : negative by insufficient density differences. This means that a shadow
    : detail will not be discernible in the print.

    : It has also been found that if a portrait negative with optimum
    : printing quality is desired, it is important with most portrait films
    : not to expose the film enough to place the shadow point appreciably
    : above the ASA gradient speed point. With some films, however, such as
    : Kodak Super-XX, this can be a fairly large factor; in some cases two
    : or four times seems satisfactory. The important consideration is that
    : the highlight densities at the other end of the density scale should
    : not be recorded by the shoulder portion of the characteristic curve.
    : The curve gradient here is decreasing as the density increases, which
    : means that the facial highlights, if recorded, will be rendered with
    : insufficient tonal separation.

    : Here, then, is how and why a portrait negative should be exposed: The
    : darkest shadow areas should be well down on the toe of the
    : characteristic curve, the middle tones should be on the central
    : portion of the toe, while the highest diffuse facial highlights should
    : be on the straight-line portion of the curve. Ideally, these
    : highlights should have density values of about 0.8 to 1.0. For most
    : portrait films, this value should not be above 1.2. A negative which
    : has been exposed in this manner will result in a print which, most
    : observers agree, is of better quality than the best obtainable print
    : made from negatives with appreciably less or more exposure. This ideal
    : negative has, accordingly, highlights which have appreciably more
    : brilliant tonal separation than the shadows. This evidently helps to
    : concentrate observer attention on the most important area of the
    : portrait, the face, while subordinating the shadows with a lower
    : printing contrast.

    : In other words, in portraiture, a more pleasing picture may be
    : obtained if toe densities represent the shadows in spite of the fact
    : that it may be a less literal reproduction of the subject. Thus, from
    : a pictorial standpoint, retention of shadow detail may be unimportant.

    : There is another factor which influences the tolerance of the film's
    : exposure latitude, and that is the type of film which is used.
    : Remember that it is desirable to keep the facial highlights from being
    : recorded by the shoulder portion of the characteristic curve. It
    : happens that some films normally "shoulder" sooner than others as the
    : higher densities are approached. It follows, therefore, that the
    : longer the straight-line portion of the curve, the more "portrait"
    : latitude a particular film has. Of course, too long a negative scale
    : cannot be compressed within the ability of a photographic paper to
    : reproduce its entire spread. For films customarily used in
    : portraiture, and which have a shoulder starting at a density of about
    : 1.5, the negative should be on the "thin side." However, excellent
    : prints can be made even from fairly dense negatives on Kodak Super-XX
    : Film which has an unusually long "straight-line curve."

    : There is, of course, an upper limit of useful exposure which is
    : governed by increased graininess, loss of definition, and the
    : practical difficulty of printing very dense negatives long before the
    : upper limit of the negative exposure scale is reached.

    : It should not be inferred that a film with a long straight-line curve
    : is better for portraiture than one which shoulders off at a lower
    : density. Portrait films with a long sweeping toe have both a very
    : desirable toe shape and sufficient straight line to record the
    : highlights brilliantly. It's just that a longer straight-line curve
    : permits a greater "portrait-subject" exposure latitude.

    : Development.
    : The photographer's style of lighting in terms of lighting ratios, his
    : enlarging equipment, and the Kodak Opal Paper on which he makes his
    : prints are relatively fixed features among the variables controlling
    : print contrast. The simplest method of controlling contrast is,
    : accordingly, by adjusting the degree of negative development. Because
    : individual working conditions and techniques vary widely, it means,
    : practically, that every photographer should develop his negatives to a
    : gamma which best suits his particular conditions. Thus, any gamma
    : which results subsequently in best-quality prints is the correct gamma
    : to use. Development recommendations are therefore to be regarded as a
    : basis for trial from which a departure may be needed. The Kodak
    : Developing Dataguide will be found helpful in working out a uniform
    : development procedure best suited to a photographer's particular
    : needs. As an example, take a portrait photographer using a certain
    : lighting contrast, type of enlarger, etc. He might find that the most
    : appropriate film developing time corresponds to the "Lower Contrast"
    : arrow on the Dataguide. If he changes film or developer, or the
    : developer temperature changes, he can obtain negatives of the same
    : printing quality by developing for the time which again appears at the
    : "Lower Contrast" arrow. In any case, having once found the degree of
    : development that gives excellent prints on the desired paper, he
    : should stick to it. This degree of development may come above or below
    : the recommended one, but it is the right one for the photographer's
    : conditions.

    : THE COMMERCIAL NEGATIVE
    : Commercial photography encompasses almost all subjects not included
    : under the portrait category previously discussed. Commercial negatives
    : would be typified by normal negatives of product illustrations for
    : advertising, display, or catalogue purposes, press shots, and many
    : types of industrial photography.

    : Whereas in portraiture the photographer is primarily concerned with
    : the reproduction of facial tones, in commercial photography he is
    : interested equally in both highlights and shadows. In other words, the
    : commercial photographer wants to reproduce all important portions of
    : his subject with a minimum of tonal value distortion. In general, this
    : means a slightly more dense negative in order to avoid the tonal
    : distortion of shadows occurring in the toe portion of the
    : characteristic curve. Many commercial photographers feel that these
    : conditions are fulfilled if the average commercial negative receives
    : about one stop more than the average portrait negative. Thus, the
    : recommended technique for making a meter reading by either reflected
    : light or incident light will produce negatives of the desired exposure
    : level.

    : It has been customary for commercial negatives to be developed
    : somewhat more than portrait negatives. However, there is no
    : photographic reason why an average commercial negative should be
    : developed to a higher gamma than a portrait negative.

    : As the portrait photographers have their adage, so also do the
    : commercial photographers who say, "Expose for the shadows and develop
    : for the highlights." Is this sound advice? First, let us examine this
    : statement more closely. Admittedly, adequate exposure is desirable to
    : record the important shadow tones. But to "develop for the highlights"
    : implies that the time of development, or in other words, the gamma,
    : should be varied in accordance with the brightness range of the scene.
    : The idea is, of course, to prevent overdevelopment of highlights, so
    : the scale of tones can be kept within that which photographic paper
    : can render. Thus, should a negative of a short scale subject, such as
    : an average building exterior taken on an overcast day, be developed to
    : a higher gamma than a negative of the same scene taken in brilliant
    : sunlight? The answer is generally no; both negatives should be
    : developed alike. This is probably contrary to the practice which some
    : professional photographers advocate. The reasoning for this answer
    : follows: Although photographers speak of "important highlights" and
    : "important shadows," for the most part it is actually the middle tones
    : which are most important of all. Middle tones are, of course, the
    : range of grays between highlights and shadows. Stated differently,
    : middle tones of a negative or print are those densities which are not
    : associated with toe or shoulder areas of the characteristic curve.
    :
    : It has been found through a series of comprehensive tests that for the
    : great majority of scenes the middle tones should be reproduced at a
    : gradient of 1.0 on a tone reproduction curve. This curve is a plot of
    : densities in the print versus the logarithms of the luminances or
    : "brightnesses" of corresponding areas in the scene. A gradient of 1.0
    : means that if there is a 10 percent difference between two tones in
    : the scene, then these same tones should be reproduced with a 10
    : percent difference in the print. Generally speaking, the middle tones
    : should be reproduced with a gradient of 1.0, even if this can be done
    : only at a sacrifice of gradient in the highlights and shadows.
    : In other words, the majority of people want the middle tones of the
    : print to reproduce most original subjects as closely as possible,
    : regardless of the lighting conditions that prevailed when the pictures
    : were taken. To do this, all negatives should be developed to the same
    : contrast or gamma for the same printing conditions and paper grade.

    : There are exceptions, of course. The "majority" of outdoor subjects in
    : the tests mentioned previously included about 85 percent of
    : picture-taking situations, such as portraits, landscapes, and
    : architectural pictures taken in sunlight, in shade, and on overcast
    : days. The remaining 15 percent of the scenes had, for the most part,
    : large and very deep shadow areas which comprised an important part of
    : the subject. It was these latter scenes which the majority of
    : observers thought were best printed on a paper one grade softer than
    : normal. Thus, even for subjects with a long scale of brightnesses, it
    : was found satisfactory to develop the negative as though for a normal
    : scene and to let the range of paper grades compensate for the unusual
    : nature of the subject. In other words, the varying lighting conditions
    : may demand the use of a paper grade other than No.2 for best results.

    : However, unusual subjects in which heavy shadows may either be present
    : or actually predominate the scene are usually treated differently by
    : professional photographers than they are by amateur photographers. The
    : professional uses fill-in flash illumination, whereas the amateur does
    : them without the benefit of supplementary illumination. The flash
    : converts an "unusual" subject into a "normal" subject, and as such
    : requires a normal negative development and will print on a normal
    : grade of paper.

    : The degree of negative development for some subjects naturally depends
    : on the photographer's "artistic intent." For example, suppose he were
    : to photograph a sailboat at anchor during foggy weather. If it is
    : thought that the fog lends a desirable pictorial effect to the scene,
    : then it can be reproduced as the eye saw it with a normal negative
    : development and a print on No.2 grade paper. If, on the other hand, a
    : clear record picture of the boat was the photographer's object, and
    : the exposure could be made only under a fog condition, then the
    : negative should receive more than normal development to compensate for
    : the contrast-reducing action of the fog particles. In this case,
    : overdevelopment of the negative is desirable only if a print from a
    : normally developed negative on No.4 paper grade would contain
    : insufficient contrast. Accordingly, in view of the desirability of
    : reproducing most scenes with a gradient of 1.0, and because of the
    : wide control over contrast possible with various paper grades, it is
    : highly advisable for the professional photographer to develop the
    : great majority of his negatives to the same gamma.

    : A sensible approach to planning a standard photographic technique,
    : including the degree of negative development, is to strive for a
    : negative that will print best on a normal grade of paper. Although
    : there is no necessity to confine oneself to anyone gamma if several
    : paper grades are available, it is only logical to aim for No.2 paper.
    : If this is done successfully, the printing problem is simplified by
    : using one grade of paper for most negatives. At the same time, the
    : photographer is protected on both sides of normal by papers with
    : greater or less contrast capacity, should an underdeveloped or
    : overdeveloped negative accidentally result.

    : Kodak processing recommendations for film are generally based on the
    : use of diffusion-type enlargers, or on contact printing which results
    : in prints of approximately the same contrast, everything else being
    : equal. Obviously, these same processing recommendations should be
    : modified by a reduction of 15 to 20 percent in gamma to suit
    : condenser-type enlargers if prints of the same contrast are to be
    : obtained.

    : Individual preferences are shown in a survey made of several
    : individual newspapers and the principal news photo services. The
    : results showed that films were developed to gammas ranging from 0.62
    : to 1.18, with an average of 0.85; that Kodak Developer DK-60a was the
    : most popular of the developers, although a number of others were used;
    : and that developing times ranged all the way from 4 ? to 8 minutes.
    : The photographers who preferred the lower range of gammas used
    : condenser enlargers. The ones who developed films in the intermediate
    : range used tungsten-source, diffusion enlargers, and those using the
    : highest gammas employed mercury-vapor enlargers. In a similar manner,
    : commercial and, to a lesser extent, portrait photographers also modify
    : the basic development recommendations according to individual
    : conditions.

    --




    Keep working millions on welfare depend on you
     
    Frank Pittel, Aug 1, 2004
    #5
  6. What do you mean? Would you prefer to remain ignorant?
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004
    #6
  7. No, perhaps those who knew what the hell they were talking about
    retired or died, dumbass....
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004
    #7
  8. Michael Scarpitti

    jjs Guest

    Look - Both of You! Veracity in the commercial domain is not the
    peer-reviewed constant it is (when at its best) in the scientific domain.
    Kodak is certainly not excempt from suspicion in their current technical
    proclaims. Get over it. A generation or two has passed through the veil we
    knew as their true nature. Kodak can be as full of shit as anyone. They have
    adopted a marketing agenda in place of their once default-superior place in
    the field.

    BE SKEPTICAL OF EVERYTHING!
     
    jjs, Aug 1, 2004
    #8
  9. Address the goddamn post, asshole!
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 1, 2004
    #9
  10. Michael Scarpitti

    Frank Pittel Guest

    : > Interestingly enough I can't seem to find this book for sale. The only refernece
    : > I can find is to a long out of print book from 1952. It's clear from reading new
    : > publications from Kodak that they have come to see the light.

    : No, perhaps those who knew what the hell they were talking about
    : retired or died, dumbass....

    It's more likely that while the engineers were working with Ansel Adams during the '50s
    on the Zone system they came to realize the value of using development time to control
    the contrast of negatives. This would certainly be a more likely reason for Kodak
    shifting it's position and advice on using development time to control negative
    contrast.

    In any case the improvements I got in both the print-ability of my negatives and the
    improvement I got in my prints after starting to use the zone system is enough of a
    reason for me to continue using the zone system. The reversal of Kodak's position on
    the matter simply reinforces my position.


    --




    Keep working millions on welfare depend on you
     
    Frank Pittel, Aug 2, 2004
    #10
  11. Back into the killfile. Revised my Newsreader........was willing to give
    you the benefit of the doubt,....bye bye.
     
    Paul Atreides, Aug 2, 2004
    #11
  12. Hum? Pot, Kettle, Black.
     
    Paul Atreides, Aug 2, 2004
    #12
  13. Seeing is believing.
     
    Paul Atreides, Aug 2, 2004
    #13
  14. Michael Scarpitti

    Frank Pittel Guest

    : In article <>,
    :
    : > In any case the improvements I got in both the print-ability of my negatives
    : > and the improvement I got in my prints after starting to use the zone system is
    : > enough of a reason for me to continue using the zone system. The reversal of Kodak's
    : > position on the matter simply reinforces my position.

    : Seeing is believing.

    Along the same lines getting the results you're after is the most important thing.
    While my opinion of the images scarpitti has made available online are well known. He
    is happy with the results he gets and that's more important then the method, film,
    developer he uses to get it. At the same time I am happy with the results I get and
    will continue doing what I do until I find something that gives me results that I
    prefer.

    Alas since the bandwidth limitations of my web servers and the size of the scans of my
    4x5 combined with my lack of a scanner capable of doing them justice prevents me from
    putting my work online. I've considered reducing the size of the scans of my prints but
    since I primarily use LF for the detail and tonality it affords I don't feel that a
    size practical for posting online would do them justice.

    I am a member of a LF group here in the midwest we have a website at:
    www.midwestlargeformat.com. There is also a mailing list for the group. Send me an
    email and I will be happy to add anyone that is interested. Unlike the flame wars here
    on the Usenet there is limited tolerance to flame wars and personal insults are not
    tolerated. We also have monthly outings on the 3rd weekend of each month and all are
    welcome. An important part of each group outing is what we refer to as a "print
    exchange". This is were members of the group bring images that they made to pass around
    to others in the group. If you ever plan on being in the midwest during one of our
    outings I encourage you to attend our outings. In any case I encourage everyone to
    consider subscribing to the mailing list. The traffic is very low and the amount of
    photographic know how is amazing!!
    --




    Keep working millions on welfare depend on you
     
    Frank Pittel, Aug 2, 2004
    #14

  15. What does it profit Kodak to offer bad advice? Why would Kodak spend
    the time and money they did to conduct these studies, asking observers
    to evaluate the images made with variable film development and
    constant film development? Kodak's interest is in helping
    photographers to get the best results possible, and they spent tons of
    money on that effort.

    This book dates from 1956. I would be much more inclined to trust
    Kodak's pronouncements from this era than from their more recent
    publications, since they have cut so much from research funding.
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 2, 2004
    #15
  16. Michael Scarpitti

    Jim Phelps Guest

    Mike,

    You troll. You want me to address the post? However, the first sentence
    says why I should not.

    An asshole, I think not. However, you are in need of some deep, inner
    self review. Either that or you should pound sand in your blissful state of
    mind.

    Quote something recent if you would, please. Film technology has
    advanced, unlike you.

    Even my Kodak Darkroom Dataguide, 5th Edition, First 1976 Printing states
    in the discussion on the Developing Dial (last paragraph): "This method
    gives the user a way of incorporating adjustments for the
    contrast-controlling factors into his working procedures." Seems to me that
    Kodak in this edition of the DDg acknowledges the use of time for the
    controlling of contrast depending upon the users desires. Never mind the
    selection of the developer itself. And that's what the Zone System is about
    (to a degree, but there's so much more to the ZS).

    No, I do not want to be ignorant, but will in the same sentence admit
    there are things I am ignorant about. Like how to design Rockets. But
    then, I've never had a need to learn.

    Why don't you open that shut mind of yours and stop being so "Blissful".

    Now, who's an asshole, Mikey? If we took a vote, I guess I'd lose...

    Jim P [but you know my last name don't you]
     
    Jim Phelps, Aug 2, 2004
    #16
  17. Michael Scarpitti

    Jim Phelps Guest

    No! On the contrary. I for one have begun to learn and understand the Zone
    System. I for one have become familiar with it's workings and techniques.
    I for one have tried it and seen it's results. I for one do not hide behind
    outdated and changed information. I for one have NOT remained ignorant.

    Remember, the word Ignorant has it's root in the word Ignore. Basically,
    'To Ignore Knowledge". Usually used to describe the lack of knowledge [in a
    subject area]. It is not meant to describe lack of intelligence and
    therefore wrongly seen as insultive. The word to describe a lack of
    intelligence is "Stupid". A person that is a "Stupid Ignorant" would be a
    person who is both uncaring about learning and does not posses the ability
    to learn. Hmmm....

    Go now, and be blissful...
     
    Jim Phelps, Aug 2, 2004
    #17
  18. That's incompatible with the facts as presented in the book. The
    author states that mid-tones ARE the most important, based on
    observations by many viewers. The zoan sistum was devised without any
    such research, and is thus dogmatic, i.e., not based on experience but
    on abstract thinking, which of course may or may not be relevant.
    No, it doesn't. The fact of the matter is that those who knew what
    they were talking about retired and died, leaving a vacuum which the
    ZoNazis filled. The 'seizure of power'. Ring any bells? Ansel Hitler,
    Minor Goebbels, et al...
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 2, 2004
    #18
  19. ZoNazi asshole..
     
    Michael Scarpitti, Aug 2, 2004
    #19
  20. Michael Scarpitti

    jjs Guest

    I am not faulting Kodak, per se! Let's look at the term of your question:
    "observers". What is the nature of the observers and what is their goal?
    What do they consider good or adequate?

    Kodak has a position to ignore the so-called Zone System because it could
    not possibly fit into a standard model for profitable commerce. The ZS
    requires tedious custom proceedures which are highly dependent upon each
    element of picture making (which light meter, what color light, which paper,
    developer, film, enlarger, contact and so-forth) and the ZS is tightly
    coupled with personal preferences and interpretation regardless of how
    strident one might make the procedure. In a word, the ZS is impossible for a
    commercial product unless focused upon a _specific market_, _specific
    observers_, and then it would be a highly rarified one certainly not
    profitable to a very large publicly held company.

    So Kodak offers the products which rely upon their recommended procedures
    which achieve good results as defined by the market-definition of 'good', or
    'professional' which fit their mass market.
     
    jjs, Aug 2, 2004
    #20
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